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Category: Cognitive (Page 5 of 40)

New Foundations for a Science of Text and Discourse:

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Craik (1973, p. 48) defined depth as “the meaningfulness extracted from the stimulus rather than …the number of analyses performed upon it.” The key theoretical assumptions made by Craik and Lockhart (1972) were as follows: • The level or depth of processing of a stimulus has a large effect on its memorability. • Deeper levels of analysis produce more elaborate, longer lasting, and stronger memory traces than do shallow levels of analysis. However, some predictions are grounded in a comprehension component that is considerably less specified (e.g., predictions on invalid inferences).

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Perspectives on Cognitive Task Analysis: Historical Origins

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This differs from the case with non-speech sounds, where discrimination between pairs of sounds is superior to the ability to label them as belonging to separate categories. This constancy contrasts with the size of the retinal image, which becomes progressively smaller as an object recedes into the distance. THE PROTOTYPE VIEW As we have seen, the classical defining-attribute view of concepts does not stand up to the evidence found, especially that on the existence of category members with differential typicality, borderline membership, and graded structure of concepts.

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World Congress on Neural Networks: 1993 International Neural

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In addition, neuroscience studies have played a larger role in vision research than in most other areas of cognitive psychology. If all of a sample of children is given every advantage offered by a culture, the differences among them in cognitive ability that remain to be measured are likely due to differences in their inheritance. Some researchers have used published texts (e.g., articles; books) written by professional writers, whereas others have used specially constructed texts. Their patient, EA, could not write any of 55 non-words to dictation, but was able to write 50% of regular words and 45% of irregular words correctly.

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Cognitive Systems (Cognitive Systems Monographs)

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The surrounding frame had been moved, so that the participants had the illusion that the target’s position had changed. Williams et al. (1997) made use of Roediger’s (1990) distinction between perceptual and conceptual processes (see Chapter 7). There are seven different perspectives that dominate modern psychology. What that means is that faces are generally recognised as wholes, and explicit representations of parts of the face (e.g., nose; mouth) play little or no part. In general they argue that, on closer inspection, there is evidence that the parents and child have often put a good deal of work into the exceptional ability.

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Structure of Decision: The Cognitive Maps of Political

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He argued that the reason for this might be that a lesion that was large enough to destroy areas V3, V4, and IT would probably destroy area V1 as well. Some are also paid to undertake part-time teaching within the School. But still check the discussion group from instructions and other information. We have one of the best-equipped Psychology departments in the country. Third, Marr and Nishihara (1978), Biederman (1987, 1990), and others have emphasised the notion that object recognition involves matching an object-centred representation that is independent of the observer’s viewpoint with object information stored in long-term memory.

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Joseph Wolpe (Key Figures in Counselling and Psychotherapy

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No, this is not related to how you got along with your mother and how that influences current relationships. As has been found with surface dyslexics, the network’s reading performance was very good on regular high- and low-frequency words and on non-words, worse on irregular highfrequency words, and worst on irregular low-frequency words. Thus ... ... (b) Explain in your own words why the magical number seven is relevant to the debate between behaviorism and cognitive psychology.

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Accelerated Learning

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Imprescriptible Otis sniggles, Socinianism grasps computerize afar. At birth, one's id has all the psychic energy. At Carleton College she holds the title Professor of Cognitive Science, and serves as the director of that interdisciplinary program, which she helped establish in 1989. Presented at the annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association (AERA), New Orleans. They could see no reason why what applied to animals should not apply to humans.

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Metacognition: Theory, Performance and Current Research

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Galton published Hereditary Genius which "proposed to show that a man's natural abilities are derived by inheritance". It includes book reviews as well as summaries of books and educational/psychological materials that are new to the market. The tone task consistently interfered least with each of the other three tasks. Problem Solving: Problem solving is the process where humans attempt to alter behavior and set goals.

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Playfulness: Its Relationship to Imagination and Creativity

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As Evolutionary Psychologists like to point out, there are some things which have arguably stayed constant since the EEA: [R]esearchers know with certainty of high confidence thousands of important things about our ancestors, many of which can be used to derive falsifiable predictions about our psychological architecture: our ancestors had two sexes; contracted infections by contact, collected plant foods; inhabited a world where the motions of objects conformed to the principles of kinematic geometry; had color vision; were predated upon; had faces; lived in a biotic environment with a hierarchical taxonomic structure, and so forth (Sell et al. 2003, 52–3).

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Mensa IQ Workbook

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The propositional file for the duck might, thus, contain entries that relate the wing parts of the duck to the foundation part: for example, WINGS LOCATION ON_EITHER_SIDE BODY indicating that the wings are on either side of the body. This does not, however, preclude the self-motivated engagement in some secondary activities. This basic idea has been used, albeit in more sophisticated forms, in the psychology of reasoning. It means that the potentialities for action cannot be fully described independently of the specific situation, a statement with which we fully concur.

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